Thursday, 29 September 2011


BIOLOGYIS ONE OF THE NATURAL SCLENCES which deals with the thing that exhibit the properties of life sclentists ca;; these thing as organisms the word biology has been derved from greek words bios life + logos discourse .formerly living organisms were classtfied into two kingdoms i.e. plant kingdom and animal kingdom the plants were studied under the subdivision botany and animals were studied under subdivision zoology the latest research has discarded the old concept of two kingdoms of living organisms according to modern system of taxonomy living organisms have been classified into the following five kingdoms
1;;      kingdom prokaryotic [monera]\
IT includes almost all the prokaryotes such as bacteria and cyanobacteria
2;;         kingdom portisat;
IT includes all the acellular eukaryotic such organisms  .which  are no longer classifited as animals plants or fungi. E.g. englena paramecium chlamydomonas. Etc.
3;;          kingdom fungi;;
IT includes non-chlorophyllus. Multicellular. Organisms having cell wall coenocytic body called mycelium e.g. agaricus mushroom yeast etc
4;;          kingdom plantae’
IT includes all the chlorophyllus multicellular eukaryotic living organisms having cell wall. e.g  apple sunflower.etc
5;;          Kingdom animalia
IT includes all the non-chlorophyllus multicellular eukaryotic organisms having no cell wall e.g. hydra earthworm man etc
Scientists have discovered and named more than one and a half million species of living organisms which exist in a great variety of forms –shapes and sizes for example the smallest microscopic ones bacteria which may measure no more than   0.0001mm to probably the largest animal wnale in the world which may measure up to 40 meters in length and weight 150 tons and trees redwood tree measuring over 300 feet in height
Modern biology does not only concern with the recognition and classification of these species but also deals with their vital structural and functional aspects this has led to the division of biolgy into a large number of extremely specialized branches some of the major branches or fields of specialtsation in biology are defined below;
Molecular Biology
It is recent branch of biological science that deals with the structure and function of the molecules that form structure of cell and organelles that take part in the biological processes of a living organism(nucleic acids-protein molecule0.
It deals with the study of micro organisms [viruses. Protozoans. Etc ]
Enivronmental Biology
IT dea;ls with the study of envtronment and its effects on organisms
Marine Biology
It deals with the study of organisms inhabtting the sea ocean and the physical and chemical characteristic of their environment
Fresh Water Biology
IT deals with life swelling in the fresh waters physical and chemical characteristics of fresh water budies affecting it
It deals with the study of parasttic orhanisms their life cycles mode of transmission and interactionwith their hosts
Human Biology
This branch of bio;ogy seals with all biological aspects of man regarding evolution anatomy physiology health inheritance etc
Social Biology
Social biology is concerned with the social interactions within a population of a given animal spectes spectally in human beings focuses on such issues as whether certain behaviours are inherited or culturally induced

THIS IS A VERY RECENT branch introduced in biological sciences it deals with the use of the data and techniques of engineering and technology for the study and solution of problems concerning living organisms particularly the human beings 

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